Engineering 3D-Bioplotted scaffolds to induce aligned extracellular matrix deposition for musculoskeletal soft tissue replacement

Paul B. Warren, Pedro Huebner, Jeffrey T. Spang, Rohan A. Shirwaiker, Matthew B. Fisher

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  • 3 Citations

Abstract

Purpose: Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine approaches have the potential to overcome the challenges associated with current treatment strategies for meniscus injuries. 3D-Bioplotted scaffolds are promising, but have not demonstrated the ability to guide the formation of aligned collagenous matrix in vivo, which is critical for generating functional meniscus tissue. In this study, we evaluate the ability of 3D-Bioplotted scaffold designs with varying interstrand spacing to induce the deposition of aligned matrix in vivo. Materials and Methods: 3D-Bioplotted polycaprolactone scaffolds with 100, 200, or 400 μm interstrand spacing were implanted subcutaneously in a rat model for 4, 8, or 12 weeks. Scaffolds were harvested, paraffin-embedded, sectioned, and stained to visualize cell nuclei and collagen. Quantitative image analysis was used to evaluate cell density, matrix fill, and collagen fiber alignment within the scaffolds. Results: By 4 weeks, cells had infiltrated the innermost scaffold regions. Similarly, collagenous matrix filled interstrand regions nearly completely by 4 weeks. By 12 weeks, aligned collagen was present in all scaffolds. Generally, alignment along the scaffold strands increased over time for all three interstrand spacing groups. Distribution of collagen fiber alignment angles narrowed as interstrand spacing decreased. Conclusions: 3D-Bioplotted scaffolds allow for complete cell infiltration and collagenous matrix production throughout the scaffold. The ability to use interstrand spacing as a means of controlling the formation of aligned collagen in vivo was demonstrated, which helps establish a design space for scaffold-based meniscus tissue engineering.

LanguageEnglish (US)
Pages342-354
Number of pages13
JournalConnective Tissue Research
Volume58
Issue number3-4
DOIs
StatePublished - May 4 2017

Fingerprint

Scaffolds
Extracellular Matrix
Collagen
Tissue
Tissue Engineering
Regenerative Medicine
Cell Nucleus
Tissue engineering
Paraffin
Cell Count
Fibers
Bioelectric potentials
Wounds and Injuries
Scaffolds (biology)
Infiltration
Image analysis
Meniscus
Rats
Cells

Keywords

  • 3D printing
  • Biofabrication
  • meniscus
  • scaffold
  • tissue engineering

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Rheumatology
  • Biochemistry
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology

Cite this

Engineering 3D-Bioplotted scaffolds to induce aligned extracellular matrix deposition for musculoskeletal soft tissue replacement. / Warren, Paul B.; Huebner, Pedro; Spang, Jeffrey T.; Shirwaiker, Rohan A.; Fisher, Matthew B.

In: Connective Tissue Research, Vol. 58, No. 3-4, 04.05.2017, p. 342-354.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Warren, Paul B. ; Huebner, Pedro ; Spang, Jeffrey T. ; Shirwaiker, Rohan A. ; Fisher, Matthew B./ Engineering 3D-Bioplotted scaffolds to induce aligned extracellular matrix deposition for musculoskeletal soft tissue replacement. In: Connective Tissue Research. 2017 ; Vol. 58, No. 3-4. pp. 342-354
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