Current Prescribing Practices for Skin and Soft Tissue Infections in Nursing Homes

Diana Feldstein, Philip D. Sloane, David Weber, Kimberly Ward, David Reed, Sheryl Zimmerman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Objectives Antibiotic stewardship has been called for across all sites of health care, including nursing homes (NHs). Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are the third most common indication for antibiotics in the NH, and so should be a focus of stewardship. This study audited medical records to identify signs and symptoms of SSTIs treated with antibiotics in relation to the McGeer criteria for surveillance, the Loeb minimum criteria for antibiotic initiation, and prescribing recommendations of the Infectious Disease Society of America. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Thirty-one NHs in Southeastern United States. Measurements Chart data from a random sample of 161 antibiotic prescriptions for SSTIs were abstracted. To meet the McGeer criteria, pus was present at a suspected SSTI site, or at least four of the following findings were documented as present at the site: new or worsening warmth, redness, swelling, tenderness, serous drainage, or a constitutional finding. The Loeb minimum criteria for initiating antibiotics included findings of new or increasing purulent drainage at a suspected SSTI site or at least two of the following findings: fever or new or worsening redness, tenderness, warmth, or swelling at the suspected site. Audits also collected the name, route, and duration of the associated antibiotic. Analyses calculated the types of diagnoses and evaluated associations between published criteria and prescribing. Results Cellulitis, skin/soft tissue injury with infection, and abscess were diagnosed in 37% (N = 59), 18% (N = 29), and 16% (N = 26) of cases, respectively; 27% (N = 43) had less specific diagnoses. The McGeer criteria were met in 25% (N = 40), and the Loeb minimum criteria were met in 48% (N = 77) of cases. Doxycycline was the most frequently prescribed antibiotic. The mean treatment length was 9.6 days (standard deviation, 5.6), and the median length of treatment was 8.5 days (range, 3-45). Conclusion SSTIs are not routinely diagnosed or treated according to recommended standards of care, and prescriptions for systemic antibiotics appear to be frequently initiated without regard to recommended definitions of infection or therapies for the associated diagnoses. These findings indicate that SSTIs present various opportunities to improve antibiotic stewardship.

LanguageEnglish (US)
Pages265-270
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of the American Medical Directors Association
Volume18
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2017

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Soft Tissue Infections
Nursing Homes
Anti-Bacterial Agents
Skin
Prescriptions
Drainage
Home Health Nursing
Southeastern United States
Soft Tissue Injuries
Cellulitis
Suppuration
Doxycycline
Standard of Care
Infection
Abscess
Signs and Symptoms
Names
Medical Records
Communicable Diseases
Fever

Keywords

  • antibiotic prescribing
  • nursing home
  • Skin infection

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nursing(all)
  • Health Policy

Cite this

Current Prescribing Practices for Skin and Soft Tissue Infections in Nursing Homes. / Feldstein, Diana; Sloane, Philip D.; Weber, David; Ward, Kimberly; Reed, David; Zimmerman, Sheryl.

In: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, Vol. 18, No. 3, 01.03.2017, p. 265-270.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Objectives Antibiotic stewardship has been called for across all sites of health care, including nursing homes (NHs). Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are the third most common indication for antibiotics in the NH, and so should be a focus of stewardship. This study audited medical records to identify signs and symptoms of SSTIs treated with antibiotics in relation to the McGeer criteria for surveillance, the Loeb minimum criteria for antibiotic initiation, and prescribing recommendations of the Infectious Disease Society of America. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Thirty-one NHs in Southeastern United States. Measurements Chart data from a random sample of 161 antibiotic prescriptions for SSTIs were abstracted. To meet the McGeer criteria, pus was present at a suspected SSTI site, or at least four of the following findings were documented as present at the site: new or worsening warmth, redness, swelling, tenderness, serous drainage, or a constitutional finding. The Loeb minimum criteria for initiating antibiotics included findings of new or increasing purulent drainage at a suspected SSTI site or at least two of the following findings: fever or new or worsening redness, tenderness, warmth, or swelling at the suspected site. Audits also collected the name, route, and duration of the associated antibiotic. Analyses calculated the types of diagnoses and evaluated associations between published criteria and prescribing. Results Cellulitis, skin/soft tissue injury with infection, and abscess were diagnosed in 37\{%} (N = 59), 18\{%} (N = 29), and 16\{%} (N = 26) of cases, respectively; 27\{%} (N = 43) had less specific diagnoses. The McGeer criteria were met in 25\{%} (N = 40), and the Loeb minimum criteria were met in 48\{%} (N = 77) of cases. Doxycycline was the most frequently prescribed antibiotic. The mean treatment length was 9.6 days (standard deviation, 5.6), and the median length of treatment was 8.5 days (range, 3-45). Conclusion SSTIs are not routinely diagnosed or treated according to recommended standards of care, and prescriptions for systemic antibiotics appear to be frequently initiated without regard to recommended definitions of infection or therapies for the associated diagnoses. These findings indicate that SSTIs present various opportunities to improve antibiotic stewardship.",
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N2 - Objectives Antibiotic stewardship has been called for across all sites of health care, including nursing homes (NHs). Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are the third most common indication for antibiotics in the NH, and so should be a focus of stewardship. This study audited medical records to identify signs and symptoms of SSTIs treated with antibiotics in relation to the McGeer criteria for surveillance, the Loeb minimum criteria for antibiotic initiation, and prescribing recommendations of the Infectious Disease Society of America. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Thirty-one NHs in Southeastern United States. Measurements Chart data from a random sample of 161 antibiotic prescriptions for SSTIs were abstracted. To meet the McGeer criteria, pus was present at a suspected SSTI site, or at least four of the following findings were documented as present at the site: new or worsening warmth, redness, swelling, tenderness, serous drainage, or a constitutional finding. The Loeb minimum criteria for initiating antibiotics included findings of new or increasing purulent drainage at a suspected SSTI site or at least two of the following findings: fever or new or worsening redness, tenderness, warmth, or swelling at the suspected site. Audits also collected the name, route, and duration of the associated antibiotic. Analyses calculated the types of diagnoses and evaluated associations between published criteria and prescribing. Results Cellulitis, skin/soft tissue injury with infection, and abscess were diagnosed in 37% (N = 59), 18% (N = 29), and 16% (N = 26) of cases, respectively; 27% (N = 43) had less specific diagnoses. The McGeer criteria were met in 25% (N = 40), and the Loeb minimum criteria were met in 48% (N = 77) of cases. Doxycycline was the most frequently prescribed antibiotic. The mean treatment length was 9.6 days (standard deviation, 5.6), and the median length of treatment was 8.5 days (range, 3-45). Conclusion SSTIs are not routinely diagnosed or treated according to recommended standards of care, and prescriptions for systemic antibiotics appear to be frequently initiated without regard to recommended definitions of infection or therapies for the associated diagnoses. These findings indicate that SSTIs present various opportunities to improve antibiotic stewardship.

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