Associations between long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and cardiovascular lipid risk factors in youth with type 1 diabetes: SEARCH Nutrition Ancillary Study

Sarah C. Couch, Jamie Crandell, Irena King, Abigail Peairs, Amy S. Shah, Lawrence M. Dolan, Janet Tooze, Tessa Crume, Elizabeth Mayer-Davis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Purpose In this longitudinal study we explored the relationships between plasma n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and Δ5 and Δ6 desaturase activities (D5D and D6D, respectively) and fasting lipids in youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Methods Incident cases of T1D in youth < 20 years of age who were seen for a baseline study visit (N = 914) and a 1-year follow-up visit (N = 416) were included. Fasting blood samples were obtained at each visit and plasma phospholipid n-6 PUFAs were measured, which included linoleic acid (LA), dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA) and arachidonic acid (AA); n-3 PUFAs included α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Estimated D5D and D6D were calculated as FA product-to-precursor ratios, where D5D = AA/DGLA and D6D = DGLA/LA. To examine the longitudinal relationships between long chain PUFAs, desaturase activities and fasting plasma lipids in youth with T1D mixed effects models were used for each individual PUFAs, D5D and D6D, adjusted for demographics, clinic site, diabetes duration, insulin regimen, insulin dose/kg, HbA1c, insulin sensitivity score, and body mass index with random effects to account for the repeated measurements. Findings Favorable lipid associations were found between LA and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (β = − 0.58, p < 0.05); AA, plasma triglycerides (TG) (β = − 0.04, p < 0.05) and TG/high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-C ratio (β = − 0.04, p < 0.05); and D5D, plasma TG (β = − 0.2, p < 0.05) and TG/HDL-cholesterol ratio (β = − 0.23, p < 0.05). Findings were mixed for the n-3 PUFAs and DGLA: ALA was positively associated with plasma TG (β = 0.33, p < 0.05) and HDL cholesterol (β = 9.86, p < 0.05); EPA was positively associated with total cholesterol (β = 8.17, p < 0.05), LDL cholesterol (β = 5.74, p < 0.01) and HDL cholesterol (β = 2.27, p < 0.01); and DGLA was positively associated with TG/HDL-cholesterol ratio (β = 0.05, P < 0.05). Conclusion Findings suggest that the most abundant PUFA, LA as well as its metabolic bi-product AA, may be important targets for CVD lipid risk factor reduction in youth with T1D.

LanguageEnglish (US)
Pages67-73
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Diabetes and its Complications
Volume31
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2017

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Unsaturated Fatty Acids
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Triglycerides
Linoleic Acid
Lipids
Arachidonic Acid
HDL Cholesterol
Fasting
Eicosapentaenoic Acid
Omega-3 Fatty Acids
LDL Cholesterol
8,11,14-Eicosatrienoic Acid
Fatty Acid Desaturases
Insulin
alpha-Linolenic Acid
Docosahexaenoic Acids
Risk Reduction Behavior
HDL Lipoproteins
Longitudinal Studies
Insulin Resistance

Keywords

  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Desaturase
  • Lipids
  • Polyunsaturated fatty acids
  • Type 1 diabetes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology

Cite this

Associations between long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and cardiovascular lipid risk factors in youth with type 1 diabetes : SEARCH Nutrition Ancillary Study. / Couch, Sarah C.; Crandell, Jamie; King, Irena; Peairs, Abigail; Shah, Amy S.; Dolan, Lawrence M.; Tooze, Janet; Crume, Tessa; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth.

In: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications, Vol. 31, No. 1, 01.01.2017, p. 67-73.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Couch, Sarah C. ; Crandell, Jamie ; King, Irena ; Peairs, Abigail ; Shah, Amy S. ; Dolan, Lawrence M. ; Tooze, Janet ; Crume, Tessa ; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth. / Associations between long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and cardiovascular lipid risk factors in youth with type 1 diabetes : SEARCH Nutrition Ancillary Study. In: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications. 2017 ; Vol. 31, No. 1. pp. 67-73.
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Associations between long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and cardiovascular lipid risk factors in youth with type 1 diabetes

T2 - Journal of Diabetes and its Complications

AU - Couch, Sarah C.

AU - Crandell, Jamie

AU - King, Irena

AU - Peairs, Abigail

AU - Shah, Amy S.

AU - Dolan, Lawrence M.

AU - Tooze, Janet

AU - Crume, Tessa

AU - Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth

PY - 2017/1/1

Y1 - 2017/1/1

N2 - Purpose In this longitudinal study we explored the relationships between plasma n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and Δ5 and Δ6 desaturase activities (D5D and D6D, respectively) and fasting lipids in youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Methods Incident cases of T1D in youth < 20 years of age who were seen for a baseline study visit (N = 914) and a 1-year follow-up visit (N = 416) were included. Fasting blood samples were obtained at each visit and plasma phospholipid n-6 PUFAs were measured, which included linoleic acid (LA), dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA) and arachidonic acid (AA); n-3 PUFAs included α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Estimated D5D and D6D were calculated as FA product-to-precursor ratios, where D5D = AA/DGLA and D6D = DGLA/LA. To examine the longitudinal relationships between long chain PUFAs, desaturase activities and fasting plasma lipids in youth with T1D mixed effects models were used for each individual PUFAs, D5D and D6D, adjusted for demographics, clinic site, diabetes duration, insulin regimen, insulin dose/kg, HbA1c, insulin sensitivity score, and body mass index with random effects to account for the repeated measurements. Findings Favorable lipid associations were found between LA and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (β = − 0.58, p < 0.05); AA, plasma triglycerides (TG) (β = − 0.04, p < 0.05) and TG/high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-C ratio (β = − 0.04, p < 0.05); and D5D, plasma TG (β = − 0.2, p < 0.05) and TG/HDL-cholesterol ratio (β = − 0.23, p < 0.05). Findings were mixed for the n-3 PUFAs and DGLA: ALA was positively associated with plasma TG (β = 0.33, p < 0.05) and HDL cholesterol (β = 9.86, p < 0.05); EPA was positively associated with total cholesterol (β = 8.17, p < 0.05), LDL cholesterol (β = 5.74, p < 0.01) and HDL cholesterol (β = 2.27, p < 0.01); and DGLA was positively associated with TG/HDL-cholesterol ratio (β = 0.05, P < 0.05). Conclusion Findings suggest that the most abundant PUFA, LA as well as its metabolic bi-product AA, may be important targets for CVD lipid risk factor reduction in youth with T1D.

AB - Purpose In this longitudinal study we explored the relationships between plasma n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and Δ5 and Δ6 desaturase activities (D5D and D6D, respectively) and fasting lipids in youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Methods Incident cases of T1D in youth < 20 years of age who were seen for a baseline study visit (N = 914) and a 1-year follow-up visit (N = 416) were included. Fasting blood samples were obtained at each visit and plasma phospholipid n-6 PUFAs were measured, which included linoleic acid (LA), dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA) and arachidonic acid (AA); n-3 PUFAs included α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Estimated D5D and D6D were calculated as FA product-to-precursor ratios, where D5D = AA/DGLA and D6D = DGLA/LA. To examine the longitudinal relationships between long chain PUFAs, desaturase activities and fasting plasma lipids in youth with T1D mixed effects models were used for each individual PUFAs, D5D and D6D, adjusted for demographics, clinic site, diabetes duration, insulin regimen, insulin dose/kg, HbA1c, insulin sensitivity score, and body mass index with random effects to account for the repeated measurements. Findings Favorable lipid associations were found between LA and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (β = − 0.58, p < 0.05); AA, plasma triglycerides (TG) (β = − 0.04, p < 0.05) and TG/high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-C ratio (β = − 0.04, p < 0.05); and D5D, plasma TG (β = − 0.2, p < 0.05) and TG/HDL-cholesterol ratio (β = − 0.23, p < 0.05). Findings were mixed for the n-3 PUFAs and DGLA: ALA was positively associated with plasma TG (β = 0.33, p < 0.05) and HDL cholesterol (β = 9.86, p < 0.05); EPA was positively associated with total cholesterol (β = 8.17, p < 0.05), LDL cholesterol (β = 5.74, p < 0.01) and HDL cholesterol (β = 2.27, p < 0.01); and DGLA was positively associated with TG/HDL-cholesterol ratio (β = 0.05, P < 0.05). Conclusion Findings suggest that the most abundant PUFA, LA as well as its metabolic bi-product AA, may be important targets for CVD lipid risk factor reduction in youth with T1D.

KW - Cardiovascular disease

KW - Desaturase

KW - Lipids

KW - Polyunsaturated fatty acids

KW - Type 1 diabetes

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