25-Hydroxyvitamin D and long menstrual cycles in a prospective cohort study

Anne Marie Z. Jukic, Allen J. Wilcox, D. Robert McConnaughey, Clarice R. Weinberg, Anne Z Steiner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Vitamin D insufficiency is associated with subfertility and prolonged estrus cycles in animals, but humans have not been well studied. Methods: A prospective time-to-pregnancy study, Time to Conceive (2010-2015), collected up to 4 months of daily diary data. Participants were healthy, late reproductive-aged women in North Carolina who were attempting pregnancy. We examined menstrual cycle length as a continuous variable and in categories: long (35+ days) and short (≤25 days). Follicular phase length and luteal phase length were categorized as long (18+ days) or short (≤10 days). We estimated associations between those lengths and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) using linear mixed models and marginal models. Results: There were 1,278 menstrual cycles from 446 women of whom 5% were vitamin D deficient (25[OH]D, <20 ng/ml), 69% were between 20 and 39 ng/ml, and 26% were 40 ng/ml or higher. There was a dose-response association between vitamin D levels and cycle length. Compared with the highest 25(OH)D level (≥40 ng/ml), 25(OH)D deficiency was associated with almost three times the odds of long cycles (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.8 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.0, 7.5]). The aOR was 1.9 (1.1, 3.5) for 20 to <30 ng/ml. The probability of a long follicular phase and the probability of a short luteal phase both increased with decreasing 25(OH)D. Conclusions: Lower levels of 25(OH)D are associated with longer follicular phase and an overall longer menstrual cycle. Our results are consistent with other evidence supporting vitamin D's role in the reproductive axis, which may have broader implications for reproductive success.

LanguageEnglish (US)
Pages388-396
Number of pages9
JournalEpidemiology
Volume29
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2018

Fingerprint

Follicular Phase
Menstrual Cycle
Vitamin D
Cohort Studies
Luteal Phase
Prospective Studies
Time-to-Pregnancy
Odds Ratio
Estrus
Vitamins
Infertility
Linear Models
Healthy Volunteers
Confidence Intervals
Pregnancy
Health
Serum
25-hydroxyvitamin D

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology

Cite this

25-Hydroxyvitamin D and long menstrual cycles in a prospective cohort study. / Jukic, Anne Marie Z.; Wilcox, Allen J.; McConnaughey, D. Robert; Weinberg, Clarice R.; Steiner, Anne Z.

In: Epidemiology, Vol. 29, No. 3, 01.05.2018, p. 388-396.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Jukic, Anne Marie Z. ; Wilcox, Allen J. ; McConnaughey, D. Robert ; Weinberg, Clarice R. ; Steiner, Anne Z. / 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and long menstrual cycles in a prospective cohort study. In: Epidemiology. 2018 ; Vol. 29, No. 3. pp. 388-396.
@article{7c68eec21cca48ec8476f64cb7969950,
title = "25-Hydroxyvitamin D and long menstrual cycles in a prospective cohort study",
abstract = "Background: Vitamin D insufficiency is associated with subfertility and prolonged estrus cycles in animals, but humans have not been well studied. Methods: A prospective time-to-pregnancy study, Time to Conceive (2010-2015), collected up to 4 months of daily diary data. Participants were healthy, late reproductive-aged women in North Carolina who were attempting pregnancy. We examined menstrual cycle length as a continuous variable and in categories: long (35+ days) and short (≤25 days). Follicular phase length and luteal phase length were categorized as long (18+ days) or short (≤10 days). We estimated associations between those lengths and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) using linear mixed models and marginal models. Results: There were 1,278 menstrual cycles from 446 women of whom 5{\%} were vitamin D deficient (25[OH]D, <20 ng/ml), 69{\%} were between 20 and 39 ng/ml, and 26{\%} were 40 ng/ml or higher. There was a dose-response association between vitamin D levels and cycle length. Compared with the highest 25(OH)D level (≥40 ng/ml), 25(OH)D deficiency was associated with almost three times the odds of long cycles (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.8 [95{\%} confidence interval (CI) = 1.0, 7.5]). The aOR was 1.9 (1.1, 3.5) for 20 to <30 ng/ml. The probability of a long follicular phase and the probability of a short luteal phase both increased with decreasing 25(OH)D. Conclusions: Lower levels of 25(OH)D are associated with longer follicular phase and an overall longer menstrual cycle. Our results are consistent with other evidence supporting vitamin D's role in the reproductive axis, which may have broader implications for reproductive success.",
author = "Jukic, {Anne Marie Z.} and Wilcox, {Allen J.} and McConnaughey, {D. Robert} and Weinberg, {Clarice R.} and Steiner, {Anne Z}",
year = "2018",
month = "5",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1097/EDE.0000000000000804",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "29",
pages = "388--396",
journal = "Epidemiology",
issn = "1044-3983",
publisher = "Lippincott Williams and Wilkins",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and long menstrual cycles in a prospective cohort study

AU - Jukic, Anne Marie Z.

AU - Wilcox, Allen J.

AU - McConnaughey, D. Robert

AU - Weinberg, Clarice R.

AU - Steiner, Anne Z

PY - 2018/5/1

Y1 - 2018/5/1

N2 - Background: Vitamin D insufficiency is associated with subfertility and prolonged estrus cycles in animals, but humans have not been well studied. Methods: A prospective time-to-pregnancy study, Time to Conceive (2010-2015), collected up to 4 months of daily diary data. Participants were healthy, late reproductive-aged women in North Carolina who were attempting pregnancy. We examined menstrual cycle length as a continuous variable and in categories: long (35+ days) and short (≤25 days). Follicular phase length and luteal phase length were categorized as long (18+ days) or short (≤10 days). We estimated associations between those lengths and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) using linear mixed models and marginal models. Results: There were 1,278 menstrual cycles from 446 women of whom 5% were vitamin D deficient (25[OH]D, <20 ng/ml), 69% were between 20 and 39 ng/ml, and 26% were 40 ng/ml or higher. There was a dose-response association between vitamin D levels and cycle length. Compared with the highest 25(OH)D level (≥40 ng/ml), 25(OH)D deficiency was associated with almost three times the odds of long cycles (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.8 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.0, 7.5]). The aOR was 1.9 (1.1, 3.5) for 20 to <30 ng/ml. The probability of a long follicular phase and the probability of a short luteal phase both increased with decreasing 25(OH)D. Conclusions: Lower levels of 25(OH)D are associated with longer follicular phase and an overall longer menstrual cycle. Our results are consistent with other evidence supporting vitamin D's role in the reproductive axis, which may have broader implications for reproductive success.

AB - Background: Vitamin D insufficiency is associated with subfertility and prolonged estrus cycles in animals, but humans have not been well studied. Methods: A prospective time-to-pregnancy study, Time to Conceive (2010-2015), collected up to 4 months of daily diary data. Participants were healthy, late reproductive-aged women in North Carolina who were attempting pregnancy. We examined menstrual cycle length as a continuous variable and in categories: long (35+ days) and short (≤25 days). Follicular phase length and luteal phase length were categorized as long (18+ days) or short (≤10 days). We estimated associations between those lengths and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) using linear mixed models and marginal models. Results: There were 1,278 menstrual cycles from 446 women of whom 5% were vitamin D deficient (25[OH]D, <20 ng/ml), 69% were between 20 and 39 ng/ml, and 26% were 40 ng/ml or higher. There was a dose-response association between vitamin D levels and cycle length. Compared with the highest 25(OH)D level (≥40 ng/ml), 25(OH)D deficiency was associated with almost three times the odds of long cycles (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.8 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.0, 7.5]). The aOR was 1.9 (1.1, 3.5) for 20 to <30 ng/ml. The probability of a long follicular phase and the probability of a short luteal phase both increased with decreasing 25(OH)D. Conclusions: Lower levels of 25(OH)D are associated with longer follicular phase and an overall longer menstrual cycle. Our results are consistent with other evidence supporting vitamin D's role in the reproductive axis, which may have broader implications for reproductive success.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85050070166&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85050070166&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1097/EDE.0000000000000804

DO - 10.1097/EDE.0000000000000804

M3 - Article

VL - 29

SP - 388

EP - 396

JO - Epidemiology

T2 - Epidemiology

JF - Epidemiology

SN - 1044-3983

IS - 3

ER -